独立主格易错点更正

2018-04-1118:40:57 发表评论 164

“独立主格结构”并非真正独立,它还是一种从属分句,与主句紧密联系在一起,共同表达一个完整的意思,通常在句中起状语分句的作用,表原因、表条件、表方式、表伴随、表时间等。独立主格结构可放于句首、句尾,用逗号和主句隔开。

独立主格易错点更正

英语句子从结构上看,只有三种类型,即要么是简单句(只有一个主谓结构),要么是并列句(句子之间应有并列连词),要么就是复合句(有相应的主句和从句),除此之外,不存在其他的句子类型。

例如, He was ill, we took him to the hospital. 然而这个句式是错误的表达。 这个句子的错误就在于,它既不是简单句(因为它有两个主谓结构),也不是并列句(因为句子间没有并列连词),也不是复合句(句子没有体现出主句和从句)。

改成正确的表达可以有以下几种形式:

(1)He was ill, and we took him to the hospital. (2)He was ill, so we took him to the hospital.

(3)Because he was ill, we took him to the hospital. (4)He was ill, so he was taken to the hospital by us. (5)Because he was ill, he was taken to the hospital by us.

1、独立主格的谓语动词的格式

在独立主格结构中,动词是用现在分词还是过去分词 ,一般来说如果逻辑主语和动词之间是主谓关系,用现在分词。

如:Time permitting, we will go out to play.一句中,time和permit之间是逻辑上的主谓关系 - “时间允许”,因此用现在分词。

如果逻辑主语和动词之间是动宾关系,并且有被动的意思,用过去分词。

如:“More time given,we should have done it better. ”一句中,time和give之间的关系是动宾关系,有被动的意思---“如果被给更多时间”,因此用过去分词。

众所周知非限制性从句通常以主句的某一成分作为自己的逻辑主语,从而依附于主句。而有些非限制性从句和无动词从句带有自己的主语,在结构上与主句不发生关系,因此成为独立主格结构。

2、独立主格几种较难掌握的用法

(1)名词(代词)+介词短语 ,通常这种情况是动作表示伴随的状态,修饰或者补充动作状态。

The soldiers dashed in, rifle in hand. 士兵们端着枪冲了进来。

A girl came in, book in hand. 一个少女进来了,手里拿着书。

He was waiting, his eyes on her back. 他在等着,眼睛望着她的背影。

(2)名词(代词)+形容词或副词

He sat in the front row, his mouth half open. 他坐在前排,嘴半开着。

She sat at the table, collar off, head down, and pen in position, ready to begin the long letter. 她坐在桌前,衣领已解掉,头低了下来,拿好钢笔,准备开始写一封长信。

There being nothing else to do, they gone away. 由于无事可做,他们离开了。(代词+V-ing; 表原因)

Miss Wang come into the classroom, books in hand. 王老师走进教室,手里拿着书。(无动词结构;表伴随)

The old man sat in his chair, his eyes closed. 老人坐在椅子上,闭着眼睛。(名词+V-ed; 表状态)

Class over, we began to play basketball. 放学了,我们开始玩篮球。(名词+副词;表时间)

Without a word more spoken, he picked up the paper. 没再多说一个字,他拾起那张纸。(介词结构;表伴随)

The last guest to arrive, our party was started. 最后一位客人到了,我们的晚会开始了。(名词+不定式;表时间)

3、独立主格表达中,关于being / having been的省略问题

在许多情况下,独立主格中的现在分词being和having been可以省略,而不会改变句意的变化。如:

This (being) done, I set about cleaning the windows. 做完此事,我就开始擦洗窗户。

(Being) seized with a sudden fear, she gave a scream. 她突然感到害怕,叫了一声。

(Being) asked to sing a song for them, she couldn’t very well refuse. 当要求她为他们唱个歌时,她就不好拒绝了。

4、值得注意的是,在下列两种情况下,独立主格结构中的being(或having been)不能省略:

① 独立主格的逻辑主语是代词时。如:

It being a holiday, all the shops were shut. 由于今天是假日,所有商店都关门了。

② 在There being+名词的结构中。如:

There being no further business, I declared the meeting closed. 由于没有别的事了,我宣布闭会。

虽然叫做独立主格结构,并不是真正的独立,它还是一种从属分句,在句中有多种作用。如:表原因、表条件、表方式、表伴随、表时间等,在句中通常起状语作用。

 

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