英语倒装句的分析与运用

2018-04-1118:55:08 发表评论 316

在英语表达中,为了强调、突出等词语的目的而颠倒原有语序的句式叫做倒装句。在倒装句中,颠倒了的成分可以恢复原位,而句意基本不变,句法成分不变。归纳倒装的原因有九种,即疑问、命令、惊叹、假设、平衡、衔接、点题(signpost)、否定和韵律(metrical)。

英语倒装句的分析与运用

倒装有两种:全部倒装(Full Inversion)和部分倒装(Partial Inversion)。谓语动词全部位于主语之前的称作全部倒装,例如:In front of me stood a boy. (我面前站着一个男孩。)只将谓语动词的一部分(通常是助动词或情态动词)放在主语之前的称作部分倒装,例如:Only in this way can we do it better. (只有这样,我们才能做得更好一些)

倒装也有两种情况,即语法倒装(Grammatical Inversion)和修辞倒装(Rhetorical Inversion)。语法倒装是由于语法规则的要求而必须进行的倒装,例如:Who called me just now?(刚才谁打给我?)修辞倒装是出于修辞的需要而把正常语序转为倒装语序,例如:Out rushed the children.(孩子们冲了出去)

1、半倒装: 主语与谓语的助动词交换位置称半倒装, 有以下数种情况:

(1)否定意义的词在句首, 句子半倒装, 例如: little, never, not, no, hardly, rarely, seldom

Never shall I forget you. / At no time was the man aware of what was happening.

Little did I understand what he said to me at that time.

(2)几对并列连词如not only…but also, hardly… when等连接两个并列句, 连词在句首, 前句半倒装, 后句不倒装:

Not only was everything he had taken away from him, but also his German citizenship was taken away. / No sooner had I got to the bus stop than the bus started.(注意时态)

2、方位状语在句首, 明确的表明指出 地点方位的短句结构的情况。

In front of the house stopped a police car. / Nearby were two canoes in which they had come to the island. / Under the tree sat a boy.

3 、直接引语在句首, 这种情况可倒装也可不倒装,遇到直接用冒号引号插入的语句

“What does it mean?” asked the boy或the boy asked.

4、if 引 the exploited 主语 would rise up 谓语and 连 take 谓语 the management 宾 of society 定语 out of the hands of the exploiters 状语

如果宾语较长或宾语结构比较复杂,往往将宾语后置,采用倒装语序,以使句子保持平衡。本句的宾语由三个并列的名词构成,且第二和第三个名词后又带有限定性定语从句,故采用倒装语序,将动词poured的宾语放在状语into his writings之后。

(1)all the pain……,the fierce hatred……和the conviction……是poured的三个并列的宾语;其中,第一个that引导的定语从句修饰hatred,it had brought to him修饰conviction,在该定语从句中其关系代词作宾语而被省略;第二个that从句则是conviction的同位语从句

(2)在so+adj.(adv.)+that从句的句子中,如果so+adj.(adv.)放在句首,主句就要用部分倒装形式。例如:

So small was the mark that I could hardly see it.(那记号很小,我几乎就看不到。)

So carelessly did he drive that he almost killed himself.(他开车如此粗心,几乎杀死自己。)

注:such+adj.+n.+that的句型中倒装用法与so+adj.(adv.)+that从句一样。

(3)在as引出的让步状语从句中,常将as放在表语和主语之间,有时也可用though取代其中的as,但不能用although取代as。例如:

Young as he is,he knows more than you.(虽然他年轻,但他懂得比你多。)

注:此处的as可以用though取代,但不可用although取代。

Difficult as the work was, it was finished in time.(尽管工作很难,但及时地完成了。)

5、状语或表语位于句首时的倒装

为了保持句子平衡或使上下文衔接紧密,有时可将状语或表语置于句首,句中主语和谓语完全倒装:

Among these people was his friend Jim. 他的朋友吉姆就在这些人当中。

By the window sat a young man with a magazine in his hand. 窗户边坐着一个年轻人,手里拿着一本杂志。

6、在表语置于句首的这类倒装结构中,要注意其中的谓语应与其后的主语保持一致,而不是与位于句首的表语保持一致。比较:

In the box was a cat. 箱子里是一只猫。 In the box were some cats. 箱子里是一些猫。

注意的句式显得更加生动有趣,可以使行文显得更加活泼,避免死板。

值得注意:英语句子的倒装一是由于语法结构的需要而进行的倒装,二是由于修辞的需要而进行的倒装。前一种情况,倒装是必须的,否则就会出现语法错误;后一种情况,倒装是选择性的,倒装与否只会产生表达效果上的差异。

 

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